During World War II and the Cold War, government agencies recognized the power of comics and exploited the medium to sell the idea of ​​America around the world. Although lawmakers were alarmed by the violent and sexual content of comics in 1954 and wanted to force the industry to self-regulate – see: Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, Comics Code – other parts of the federal government saw the medium’s potential range and appeal and took advantage of it. The Writers’ War Board, and later State Department agencies, found ways to use comics to move hearts and minds around the world for the goals of the American government.

This is the argument for a new history of government involvement Pro-American comics production, Pulp Empire: The Secret History of Comic Book Imperialism, written by Paul S. Hirsch. I asked Hirsch to take me through a show and tell about some of the most powerful government-sponsored and government-created images from his book.

Paul S. Hirsch: During WWII, comics were so common that you can hardly imagine today. They sold nearly a billion copies a year – and they sold them all over the world. Not just in the United States, where they were certainly greedily eaten on the home front. The government viewed comics as an indispensable material, like tobacco – something soldiers needed to function in the field. So they sent comics everywhere American soldiers were.

The Writers ’War Board was an organization with writers and artists who were big in popular culture at the time. And they weren’t paid – at least on paper. The board tried very deliberately not to be like the German and Japanese state-sponsored propaganda weapons. That’s one of the main reasons they call themselves volunteers, and why the board chairs were chosen from American popular culture rather than the government.

The board secretly received all of its funding from the Office of War Information, which ran during the war was a larger propaganda agency. But at first glance, the board was a volunteer agency that helped fight fascism through popular culture. So they didn’t have a last word about what publishers were printing – they weren’t a censorship organization. However, the publishers had many compelling reasons to work with the board. So when the board has told you not to print something, at least after reading the documents, in most cases it seems like it was not printed.

The board has had fairly frequent contact with the major cooperating publishers, and they knew that if they wanted to print anti-Japanese stories or stories of Nazi atrocities, they might want to submit them to the board, and they could even ask the board for help with scripting. In some cases, the board went to the companies and told them: Please write a story with these characters and this plot. And when that happened, the publishers would come up with drafts for editing.

A large part of the comic strip co-opting program was getting publishers to take very specific images of Japanese characters. Most of all, they wanted to make sure that there is no such thing as “good Japanese” in comics. There was a story put to the Writers ’War Board by one of the big corporations and there is anti-fascist resistance in Japan. There is a woman who is portrayed as an anti-fascist and pro-democracy, and she is fighting for democracy in Japan. And the company submitted this to the Writers’ War Board, and immediately the board says, No, there is no such thing as a good Japanese.

This picture we’re looking at was taken by a company that was trying to appease the tablet by showing Japanese soldiers as something absolutely deserving of annihilation. I had always imagined that this was an individual choice of an artist or writer, and what really melted my brain as I went through the writers’ war board documents was understanding that this was a government-sanctioned covert program, to shape public perception, and it was made very concrete, with guidelines on how Japanese and Germans should be represented.

This comic, which has this almost indescribably vicious anti-Japanese racism, has in a way related to the politics of the board broken, on the cover. The board even encouraged publishers to portray Japanese characters as humans – not subhumans or animals. They wanted American soldiers and civilians to understand that the Japanese are an extremely powerful, devoted, and difficult to defeat enemy, and to portray them as subhumans or animals was, in their opinion, a disservice that made Americans aware of the seriousness of the threat, to which they were exposed.

We talked about how the Writers’ War Board set the representation of characters, but there were also very specific instructions on how to represent US allies. They understand that Americans will be confused if asked to exterminate a multitude of Asian people while the US is allied with other Asian countries like the Philippines and China.

This story is an example of one from the board of directors approved effort to get Americans to sympathize with some of their colored allies. The board was less concerned with promoting tolerance – I would say dramatically less – than with hatred. But there were a few. The plaintive tone of this title shows how low the bar was!

They also wanted, albeit mildly, to promote racial equality on the home front, not out of altruism but to ensure that war production was not caused by unrest and that disagreements in the United States do not provide propaganda opportunities to Germany and Japan.

The rest of this story includes Japanese and Filipino characters sharing space in comic panels, and they are practically indistinguishable. It’s very random visually and the words on the page collide with the images on the page.

This is the cover of a comic published by the Office for Inter-American Affairs (OIAA). This is another war organization that takes a different approach to comics and propaganda. The WWB embedded their stories in commercial comics, published them in English and used them mainly for American readers at home and abroad. The OIAA published comics in the languages ​​of the countries in which they were distributed throughout South and Central America.

These are openly propaganda comics, not stories embedded in commercial books, but complete comics on their own. This is an example of a comic being circulated across Latin America to convince the local audience that it is worth joining the fight against fascism – that it shouldn’t be neutral.

It can be cheaper , they are often not colored in the interior; You can see that this cover is only one color, just yellow under black. There really is no effort to cover up who is posting this. When you pick up this comic you have no question about where it came from or why it was published.

There are some specific reasons why government agencies decided to make comics. The first was that they are cheap to make. The second was: They are portable. You can move huge amounts of comics around the world without taking up a lot of space. The third is that in the case of stories published by the Writers ’War Board that do not identify as being from the government, the comic makes a perfect cover page for propaganda. You look like some garbage; It is very unlikely that the people reading them would believe the government had anything to do with their making. The shabby advertising in comics, the poor printing, the general cheapness of the object itself – they all made the perfect wrapper for government-produced propaganda.

And the fourth, the one for this comic book and other comics made during the Cold War, too Truly relevant for propaganda purposes abroad, the prevailing belief among federal politicians is that comics are understandable to everyone, and especially to an uneducated, non-white audience. The prevailing prejudice among these policymakers and propagandists is that throughout the global South, people are not cultured enough to understand books. They don’t have the infrastructure to show moving images.

This blocks traditional propaganda channels, and they think comics are the perfect alternative. They can be made available either cheaply or free of charge; they can be thrown from the air. They are long lasting; they can be smuggled into places. They are easy to hide and are believed to be understood by anyone, whether you are a six year old in Ghana or an 80 year old in Guatemala – even if you are illiterate. And the belief is also that you will not only understand it, but you will receive the intended message and be convinced. Now there was a complete lack of scientific evidence that people got the intended message out of the comics – but no one who was involved in their production cared.

This is a Cold War creation by the State Department. This one interests me because the US government really wanted to keep comics out of Western Europe at this time. They thought comics were the perfect propaganda tool for the global south and the decolonizing world, but comics are an embarrassment for white audiences in Western Europe. So this was one of those rare comics destined for distribution in areas like Western Europe.

There was this fear in Europe that American comics would spill across the globe along with American culture. Wherever American soldiers go, wherever American tourists go, they leave comics behind. And after World War II, since there was no censorship on American comics until 1954, the comics these people brought with them were allowed to be transgressive, violent, sexual, and racist. Crime, romance, and horror comics top the sales charts, and these can be deeply problematic in many ways. It is this combination of violence, sexuality and racism that could cause major problems for the US government overseas, particularly in Western Europe, where America wants to appear most cultured and cultured.

The State Department was aware of this and tried to do so to counteract this; this comic book of the eight great americans is one of the things they tried. Published in probably a dozen languages, it was intended to show Western European leaders in particular that the United States is a very racially tolerant, socially inclusive society. This comic is physically different from most United States propaganda comics; It is printed on heavy paper and the artwork is of a dramatically higher quality.

This one is difficult to this day. As far as I can tell, it’s from the early 1960s to the late 1960s. I believe it was used as part of what is known as Operation Mongoose, a multi-layered campaign to overthrow Castro in Cuba that began in late 1961 after the failed Bay of Pigs invasion. To my understanding, this was part of perhaps a dozen titles printed in large numbers as part of Operation Mongoose.

I think this is because I read discussions in declassified State Department documents that stipulated that the U.S. information agency, which was part of the State Department, was to produce unreliable comics for distribution across Latin America. They were distributed in remarkable ways: they were thrown from the air; they were smuggled; they were given to religious leaders to slip into prayer books; They were handed over to supermarket employees who smuggled them into the shopping bags. And one document I came across said the USIA determined in July 1962 that it currently had 5 million copies of six anti-Castro comics in production or already distributed. … So that’s my main reason to believe that this was part of Operation Mongoose.

This comic tells the story of two friends who fought together to overthrow former dictator Fulgencio Batista, but their friendship is crumbling, because one of them becomes a communist and prioritizes Castro and the revolution over his friends and family, while the other feels that they have betrayed it by the revolution and decides to flee. He says he will come back to organize the counterrevolution with others like him.

The State Department was mostly the producer of comics approved for propaganda purposes during the Cold War. As far as I can tell, Vietnam is finished. The State Department was distributing comics in Vietnam as early as 1964 because it was no different from other parts of the decolonizing world and was thus a target for comic propaganda. But as the United States intensified the war in Vietnam, it became increasingly difficult to present the US to audiences in the decolonizing world as a sophisticated, enlightened place that encouraged racial tolerance. Because of this, I believe, the comic book propaganda program began to wane.

American comics spread around the world in the 20th century, infiltrating every aspect of cultural life – not just in the United States, but many Countries. And those 20th century comics still exist among us as ghosts. All the excitement, trauma, anger they generated – they are not dead. The contemporary global perception of the United States arises from memory as much as from experience. And that’s the effect these comics still have.

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'use strict';
/**
* mount legacy services from _global.js, if any
*/

function _createForOfIteratorHelper (o, allowArrayLike) {var it; if (typeof Symbol === “undefined” || o [Symbol.iterator] == null) {if (Array.isArray (o) || (it = _unsupportedIterableToArray (o)) || allowArrayLike && o && typeof o. length === “number”) {if (it) o ​​= it; var i = 0; var F = function F () {}; return {s: F, n: function n () {if (i> = o.length) return {done: true}; return {done: false, value: o [i]}; }, e: function e (_e) {throw _e; }, f: F}; } throw new TypeError (“Invalid attempt to iterate non-iterable instance. nIn order to be iterable, non-array objects must have a [Symbol.iterator] () method.”); } var normalCompletion = true, didErr = false, err; return {s: function s () {it = o [symbol.iterator] (); }, n: function n () {var step = it.next (); normalCompletion = step.done; return step; }, e: function e (_e2) {didErr = true; err = _e2; }, f: function f () {try {if (! normalCompletion && it.return! = null) it.return (); } finally {if (didErr) throw err; }}}; }

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function mountLegacyServices () {
Object.keys (window.modules) .filter (function (key) {
return typeof key === ‘string’ && key.match (/ . legacy $ /);
}). forEach (function (key) {
return window.require (key);
});
}

function tryToMount (fn, el, name) {
Try {
fn (el); // init the controller
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var elementTag = el.outerHTML.slice (0, el.outerHTML.indexOf (el.innerHTML));
console.error (“Error initializing controller for ” “. concat (name,” “on ” “). concat (elementTag,” “”), e);
}
}
/ **
* mount client.js component controllers
* /

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Object.keys (window.modules) .filter (function (key) {
return typeof key === ‘string’ && key.match (/ . client $ /);
}). forEach (function (key) {
var controllerFn = window.require (key);

if (typeof controllerFn === ‘function’) {
var name = key.replace (‘. client’, ”),
instancesSelector = “[data-uri * = ” _ components / “. concat (name,” / “]”),
defaultSelector = “[data-uri $ = ” _ components “.concat (name,” “]”),
instances = document.querySelectorAll (instancesSelector),
defaults = document.querySelectorAll (defaultSelector);

var _iterator = _createForOfIteratorHelper (instances),
_step;

Try {
for (_iterator.s ();! (_ step = _iterator.n ()). done;) {
var el = _step.value;
tryToMount (controllerFn, el, name);
}
} catch (err) {
_iterator.e (err);
} finally {
_iterator.f ();
}

var _iterator2 = _createForOfIteratorHelper (defaults),
_step2;

Try {
for (_iterator2.s ();! (_ step2 = _iterator2.n ()). done;) {
var _el = _step2.value;
tryToMount (controllerFn, _el, name);
}
} catch (err) {
_iterator2.e (err);
} finally {
_iterator2.f ();
}
}
});
} // Make sure that a `window.process.env.NODE_ENV` is available in the client for any dependencies,
// services, or components that could require it
// note: the “ value is swapped for the actual environment variable in /lib/cmd/compile/scripts.js

window.process = window.process || {};
window.process.env = window.process.env || {};

if (! window.process.env.NODE_ENV) {
window.process.env.NODE_ENV = ”;
} // note: legacy controllers that require legacy services (e.g. dollar-slice) must
// wait for DOMContentLoaded to initialize themselves, as the files themselves must be mounted first

mountLegacyServices ();
mountComponentModules ();
//]]

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