Hugo Micheron recalls in particular that these attacks “were partly organized in Europe, via the Hamburg cell and logistical support networks in Madrid and Copenhagen”.

“The very dynamic of international jihadism existed long before September 11”, analyzes Hugo Micheron, specialist in terrorism, researcher in the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, on franceinfo Friday September 10, on the eve of the 20th years of the attacks.

Hugo Micheron: It’s certainly a world that has taken shape. That of a return of American power to business in the Middle East, in particular. With interventions that have had dramatic consequences for Iraqi society and for the global order in general. At the same time, that has not changed, since the very dynamic of international jihadism existed long before September 11. There is awareness, but the world was not invented. When you look at the European situation, for example, there was jihadism in Europe. So, on a very small scale, but despite everything, the attacks of September 11 were partly organized in Europe, via the Hamburg cell and logistical support networks in Madrid and Copenhagen (…) There was already this embryo of a European jihadist dynamic.

In a way, yes, since in fact there have been relatively few attacks on an international scale like 9/11. We also remember March 11, 2004 in Madrid, July 7, 2005 in London, and November 13, 2015 in Paris, which is the only attack with guerrilla methods, with that of Bombay. From that point of view, there may be a link. It should also be remembered that a certain number of the sponsors of the Paris attacks are French people who opened up to jihad just after the events of 2001. So it was also an explosion in the European Salafo-jihadist microcosms. For example, the course of the Clain brothers, who claimed responsibility for the November 13 attacks, took a jihadist turn just after these attacks.

It is an organization which still exists, which is diminished, but which has not been destroyed. Osama Bin Laden, its leader and founder was killed 10 years ago. It now has a rival, Daesh, which overwhelms it in extremism. And al-Qaeda is also competing with the Taliban regime. Part of the Taliban has changed in the sense that there is a new generation that has come of age. They have changed in their communication. They have a form of pragmatism, which is a synthesis between the ideological plasticity of Al-Qaeda and the doctrinal rigidity of Daesh.

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“The very dynamic of the international jihadist existed long before September 11”, analyze terrorist experts.

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