The mysterious “excess” of gamma-ray emissions in the universe is still being extensively analyzed by astronomers. Although recent studies have explained some evidence of radiation without an associated source, new articles provide other possible hypotheses. The most recent looks at the activity of half-asleep black holes.

Gamma rays are the most energetic type of waves in the entire electromagnetic spectrum and are generated by violent cosmic objects such as active galactic centers – a galaxy core that feeds a supermassive black hole. During the “meal” of black holes, an accretion disk forms around them, and sometimes plasma jets appear that are ejected at almost the speed of light.

These mechanisms are extremely violent and create things like quasars, active galactic centers, the billions can be observed from light years away. Gamma rays are one of the types of radiation released during the process, but there is a certain amount of gamma rays that astronomers can’t even explain by counting all of the active black holes in the observable universe.

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In addition to the excess gamma rays, there is a considerable amount of neutrinos – known as ghost particles – which are also not known to anything in the universe. Where do these energetic particles come from? According to the new study by Shigeo S. Kimura, their origins are “sleepy” black holes, i.e. neither active nor completely asleep.

Black holes are invisible, but when they feed, matter turns into plasma in the form of an accretion disk and relativistic jets (Image: Reproduction / NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center) Excess gamma rays in the lower energy range on the order of megaelectron volts, also known as “smooth Gamma rays “known. Research suggests that these particles could be produced by supermassive black holes that accumulate matter in an accretion disk at such a low level that currently available telescopes cannot see it.
In such black holes, the surrounding hot plasma can reach billions of degrees Celsius, hot enough to release photons in gamma ray lengths in the megaelectronvolt range. In addition, the protons in this plasma would be accelerated at high speed until they interact with radiation and matter, which would lead to the production of excess neutrinos.
This is still a hypothesis, but there are enough “sleeping” black holes in the observable universe to produce the amount equivalent to the excess of gamma rays and neutrinos. The black hole at the center of the Milky Way is one of them, as astronomers do not detect any activity around it. It is possible that future scientific instruments will discover that some of them are, in fact, just “sleepy”, feed on very little matter, and emit soft gamma rays.
Source: ScienceAlert

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In addition to the excess gamma rays, there is a considerable amount of neutrinos – known as ghost particles – which are also known to nothing in the universe. Where do these energetic particles come from? According to the new study by Shigeo S. Kimura, their origin is “sleepy” black holes, i.e. neither active nor completely asleep.

For the study published in the journal Nature Communications, the team investigated an excess of gamma rays in the lower energy range in the The order of magnitude of megaelectron volts, also known as “smooth gamma rays”. Research suggests that these particles could be produced by supermassive black holes that accumulate matter in an accretion disk at such a low level that currently available telescopes cannot see.

In such black holes, the surrounding hot plasma can reach billions of degrees Celsius, hot enough to release photons in gamma-ray lengths in the megaelectronvolt range. In addition, the protons in this plasma would be accelerated at high speed until they interact with radiation and matter, which would lead to the production of excess neutrinos.

This is still a hypothesis, but there are enough “sleeping” black holes in the observable universe to produce the amount that corresponds to the excess of gamma rays and neutrinos. The black hole at the center of the Milky Way is one of them, as astronomers do not detect any activity around it. It is possible that future scientific tools will discover that some of them are actually just “sleepy”, feed on very little matter, and emit soft gamma rays.

Subscribe to Canaltech to receive daily updates with the Get the latest news from the world of technology.

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